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详解在Ubuntu上的Apache配置SSL(https证书)的正确姿势

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详解在Ubuntu上的Apache配置SSL(https证书)的正确姿势

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ymscz 发表于 2020-4-19 22:09:13 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式 打印 上一主题 下一主题
首先看一下阿里云官方的教程:
文件说明:
1. 证书文件xxxxxx.pem,包含两段内容,请不要删除任何一段内容。
2. 如果是证书系统创建的CSR,还包含:证书私钥文件xxxxxxxx.key、证书公钥文件public.pem、证书链文件chain.pem。
( 1 ) 在Apache的安装目录下创建cert目录,并且将下载的全部文件拷贝到cert目录中。如果申请证书时是自己创建的CSR文件,请将对应的私钥文件放到cert目录下并且命名为xxxxxxxx.key;
( 2 ) 打开 apache 安装目录下 conf 目录中的 httpd.conf 文件,找到以下内容并去掉“#”:
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#LoadModule ssl_module modules/mod_ssl.so (如果找不到请确认是否编译过 openssl 插件)
#Include conf/extra/httpd-ssl.conf




( 3 ) 打开 apache 安装目录下 conf/extra/httpd-ssl.conf 文件 (也可能是conf.d/ssl.conf,与操作系统及安装方式有关), 在配置文件中查找以下配置语句:
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# 添加 SSL 协议支持协议,去掉不安全的协议
SSLProtocol all -SSLv2 -SSLv3
# 修改加密套件如下
SSLCipherSuite HIGH:!RC4:!MD5:!aNULL:!eNULL:!NULL:!DH:!EDH:!EXP:+MEDIUM
SSLHonorCipherOrder on
# 证书公钥配置
SSLCertificateFile cert/public.pem
# 证书私钥配置
SSLCertificateKeyFile cert/xxxxxxx.key
# 证书链配置,如果该属性开头有 '#'字符,请删除掉
SSLCertificateChainFile cert/chain.pem




( 4 ) 重启 Apache。
( 5 ) 通过 https 方式访问您的站点,测试站点证书的安装配置,如遇到证书不信任问题,请查看帮助视频。
然而这只能参考。在Ubuntu下面,我是用apt安装的Apache,但是它没有httpd.conf,只有一个apache2.conf,好吧,其实这个文件和httpd.conf差不多,它里面是这样注释的:
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# It is split into several files forming the configuration hierarchy outlined
# below, all located in the /etc/apache2/ directory:
#
# /etc/apache2/
# |-- apache2.conf
# | `-- ports.conf
# |-- mods-enabled
# | |-- *.load
# | `-- *.conf
# |-- conf-enabled
# | `-- *.conf
# `-- sites-enabled
# `-- *.conf
#




这个版本的Apache把配置文件分散到了其他小文件中,结构就是上面那样子的。你要是愿意的话,也可以自己写一个httpd.conf然后include进去。
重点讲一下https的配置,第一步,你要保证你外部环境的443端口是打开的。
第二步确保你安装了ssl_module。没有就apt-get install openssl ,可能还需要一些依赖,但是都是小问题。
然后打开ports.conf,以下几句是不可少的:
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<IfModule ssl_module>
Listen 443
</IfModule>

<IfModule mod_gnutls.c>
Listen 443
</IfModule>




接着打开mods-available,找到ssl.conf和ssl.load
ssl.load长这样:
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# Depends: setenvif mime socache_shmcb
LoadModule ssl_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_ssl.so
ssl.conf长这样:
<IfModule mod_ssl.c>

# Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG):
# Configure one or more sources to seed the PRNG of the SSL library.
# The seed data should be of good random quality.
# WARNING! On some platforms /dev/random blocks if not enough entropy
# is available. This means you then cannot use the /dev/random device
# because it would lead to very long connection times (as long as
# it requires to make more entropy available). But usually those
# platforms additionally provide a /dev/urandom device which doesn't
# block. So, if available, use this one instead. Read the mod_ssl User
# Manual for more details.
#
SSLRandomSeed startup builtin
SSLRandomSeed startup file:/dev/urandom 512
SSLRandomSeed connect builtin
SSLRandomSeed connect file:/dev/urandom 512

##
## SSL Global Context
##
## All SSL configuration in this context applies both to
## the main server and all SSL-enabled virtual hosts.
##

#
# Some MIME-types for downloading Certificates and CRLs
#
AddType application/x-x509-ca-cert .crt
AddType application/x-pkcs7-crl .crl

# Pass Phrase Dialog:
# Configure the pass phrase gathering process.
# The filtering dialog program (`builtin' is a internal
# terminal dialog) has to provide the pass phrase on stdout.
SSLPassPhraseDialog exec:/usr/share/apache2/ask-for-passphrase

# Inter-Process Session Cache:
# Configure the SSL Session Cache: First the mechanism
# to use and second the expiring timeout (in seconds).
# (The mechanism dbm has known memory leaks and should not be used).
#SSLSessionCache dbm{APACHE_RUN_DIR}/ssl_scache
SSLSessionCache shmcb{APACHE_RUN_DIR}/ssl_scache(512000)
SSLSessionCacheTimeout 300

# Semaphore:
# Configure the path to the mutual exclusion semaphore the
# SSL engine uses internally for inter-process synchronization.
# (Disabled by default, the global Mutex directive consolidates by default
# this)
#Mutex file{APACHE_LOCK_DIR}/ssl_mutex ssl-cache


# SSL Cipher Suite:
# List the ciphers that the client is permitted to negotiate. See the
# ciphers(1) man page from the openssl package for list of all available
# options.
# Enable only secure ciphers:
SSLCipherSuite HIGH:!RC4:!MD5:!aNULL:!eNULL:!NULL:!DH:!EDH:!EXP:+MEDIUM

# SSL server cipher order preference:
# Use server priorities for cipher algorithm choice.
# Clients may prefer lower grade encryption. You should enable this
# option if you want to enforce stronger encryption, and can afford
# the CPU cost, and did not override SSLCipherSuite in a way that puts
# insecure ciphers first.
# Default: Off
SSLHonorCipherOrder on

# The protocols to enable.
# Available values: all, SSLv3, TLSv1, TLSv1.1, TLSv1.2
# SSL v2 is no longer supported
SSLProtocol all -SSLv2 -SSLv3

# Allow insecure renegotiation with clients which do not yet support the
# secure renegotiation protocol. Default: Off
#SSLInsecureRenegotiation on

# Whether to forbid non-SNI clients to access name based virtual hosts.
# Default: Off
#SSLStrictSNIVHostCheck On

</IfModule>

# vim: syntax=apache ts=4 sw=4 sts=4 sr noet




之后就是站点的配置了,这里使用默认的default-ssl.conf:
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<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
<VirtualHost _default_:443>
ServerName

################加入你自己的站点配置##########



# Available loglevels: trace8, ..., trace1, debug, info, notice, warn,
# error, crit, alert, emerg.
# It is also possible to configure the loglevel for particular
# modules, e.g.
#LogLevel info ssl:warn

ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined

# For most configuration files from conf-available/, which are
# enabled or disabled at a global level, it is possible to
# include a line for only one particular virtual host. For example the
# following line enables the CGI configuration for this host only
# after it has been globally disabled with "a2disconf".
#Include conf-available/serve-cgi-bin.conf

# SSL Engine Switch:
# Enable/Disable SSL for this virtual host.
SSLEngine on

# A self-signed (snakeoil) certificate can be created by installing
# the ssl-cert package. See
# /usr/share/doc/apache2/README.Debian.gz for more info.
# If both key and certificate are stored in the same file, only the
# SSLCertificateFile directive is needed.
SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/cert/public.pem
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/cert/xxxxxxx.key

# Server Certificate Chain:
# Point SSLCertificateChainFile at a file containing the
# concatenation of PEM encoded CA certificates which form the
# certificate chain for the server certificate. Alternatively
# the referenced file can be the same as SSLCertificateFile
# when the CA certificates are directly appended to the server
# certificate for convinience.
SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/apache2/cert/chain.pem

# Certificate Authority (CA):
# Set the CA certificate verification path where to find CA
# certificates for client authentication or alternatively one
# huge file containing all of them (file must be PEM encoded)
# Note: Inside SSLCACertificatePath you need hash symlinks
# to point to the certificate files. Use the provided
# Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.
#SSLCACertificatePath /etc/ssl/certs/
#SSLCACertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crt/ca-bundle.crt

# Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL):
# Set the CA revocation path where to find CA CRLs for client
# authentication or alternatively one huge file containing all
# of them (file must be PEM encoded)
# Note: Inside SSLCARevocationPath you need hash symlinks
# to point to the certificate files. Use the provided
# Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.
#SSLCARevocationPath /etc/apache2/ssl.crl/
#SSLCARevocationFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crl/ca-bundle.crl

# Client Authentication (Type):
# Client certificate verification type and depth. Types are
# none, optional, require and optional_no_ca. Depth is a
# number which specifies how deeply to verify the certificate
# issuer chain before deciding the certificate is not valid.
#SSLVerifyClient require
#SSLVerifyDepth 10

# SSL Engine Options:
# Set various options for the SSL engine.
# o FakeBasicAuth:
# Translate the client X.509 into a Basic Authorisation. This means that
# the standard Auth/DBMAuth methods can be used for access control. The
# user name is the `one line' version of the client's X.509 certificate.
# Note that no password is obtained from the user. Every entry in the user
# file needs this password: `xxj31ZMTZzkVA'.
# o ExportCertData:
# This exports two additional environment variables: SSL_CLIENT_CERT and
# SSL_SERVER_CERT. These contain the PEM-encoded certificates of the
# server (always existing) and the client (only existing when client
# authentication is used). This can be used to import the certificates
# into CGI scripts.
# o StdEnvVars:
# This exports the standard SSL/TLS related `SSL_*' environment variables.
# Per default this exportation is switched off for performance reasons,
# because the extraction step is an expensive operation and is usually
# useless for serving static content. So one usually enables the
# exportation for CGI and SSI requests only.
# o OptRenegotiate:
# This enables optimized SSL connection renegotiation handling when SSL
# directives are used in per-directory context.
#SSLOptions +FakeBasicAuth +ExportCertData +StrictRequire
<FilesMatch "\.(cgi|shtml|phtml|php)$">
SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
</FilesMatch>
<Directory /usr/lib/cgi-bin>
SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
</Directory>

# SSL Protocol Adjustments:
# The safe and default but still SSL/TLS standard compliant shutdown
# approach is that mod_ssl sends the close notify alert but doesn't wait for
# the close notify alert from client. When you need a different shutdown
# approach you can use one of the following variables:
# o ssl-unclean-shutdown:
# This forces an unclean shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. no
# SSL close notify alert is send or allowed to received. This violates
# the SSL/TLS standard but is needed for some brain-dead browsers. Use
# this when you receive I/O errors because of the standard approach where
# mod_ssl sends the close notify alert.
# o ssl-accurate-shutdown:
# This forces an accurate shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. a
# SSL close notify alert is send and mod_ssl waits for the close notify
# alert of the client. This is 100% SSL/TLS standard compliant, but in
# practice often causes hanging connections with brain-dead browsers. Use
# this only for browsers where you know that their SSL implementation
# works correctly.
# Notice: Most problems of broken clients are also related to the HTTP
# keep-alive facility, so you usually additionally want to disable
# keep-alive for those clients, too. Use variable "nokeepalive" for this.
# Similarly, one has to force some clients to use HTTP/1.0 to workaround
# their broken HTTP/1.1 implementation. Use variables "downgrade-1.0" and
# "force-response-1.0" for this.
# BrowserMatch "MSIE [2-6]" \
# nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
# downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0

</VirtualHost>
</IfModule>

# vim: syntax=apache ts=4 sw=4 sts=4 sr noet




发现了吗,这是把阿里云教程里的配置项分散到了两个配置文件里面。
然后在浏览器上使用https访问,成功。(linux可以使用wget或curl测试)
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